Pneumonia Annotated Bibliography Example

Published: 2021-06-21 23:37:29
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Category: Literature, Medicine, Study, Nursing, Health, Vaccination, Pneumonia, Disease

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Podolsky, S. H. (2005). The Changing Fate of Pneumonia as a Public Health Concern in 20th-Century America and Beyond. American Journal of Public Health, 95(12): 2144-2154. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.048397.

The article proposes the essence of understanding the history of pneumonia. The article covers historical data from the emerging awareness of the disease in 1930 to the 20th century. Within this timeline Podolsky illustrates the significance of vaccine, control programs and reeducation of physicians. The author also provides insights on how penicillin and sulfonamides affected control programs. As control programs regressed government concerns also become devoid. As a consequence, pneumonia reverted to the private practitioners. As emerging vaccines in 1990s tries to replace unnecessary antibiotics, this raises a public health concern for the disease. Through current clinical trials, scientists reformulate the disease to explain the challenges in private practice and public.

Podolsky offers a very good suggestion on the essence of collaborative effort to curb pneumonia. The collaboration offers a check and balance to develop potent vaccines and increase public awareness on the effects of using unnecessary antibiotics. Further, retransforming pneumonia into a public health concern lowers the complacency of the commons toward the disease.
The information in the article engages readers on the history and the current challenges of the disease in the American government. Some parts could be very useful in opening a discussion about the disease. The insights are also helpful building arguments on the complacency of people about the disease because of antibiotics and vaccines.

Ruuskanen, O., Lahti, E., Jennings, L.C., and Murdoch, D.R. (2011).Viral Pneumonia. The Lancet, 377: 1264-1275.
This review covers viral community-acquired pneumonia in adults and children and current research methods to diagnose the disease. Ruuskanen et al. suggests three main points in understanding the root of community-acquired pneumonia: (1) there is a need to evaluate current knowledge of viral pneumonia; (2) studies should explain further how bacterial-viral interaction affects the development of the disease and the effect of the virus in application of vaccines; and (3) researchers should gather additional data on the effects of pneumonia in various regions of developing countries.
The paper provides a good synthesis on the inadequacies of studies in the role of viruses despite modern diagnostic techniques. The authors also present evidences on the implication of pathogens to adults and children. Further, this review also offers insights in diagnosis, interaction of pathogens, management, prevention and future direction of scientific research.

Several sections of this review provide a good material to generate discussions on the current status of research on viral pneumonia and overviews on developed vaccines. These materials could also help students to identify research gaps and develop new methods to further understand viral pneumonia on the molecular level.

Zer, Y., Bayram, N., Balci, I., and Filiz, A. (2010). Investigation of the Causative Agents for Community-acquired Pneumonia in Adult Patients. Turkish Journal of Medical Science, 40(1): 47-52.

This study explains the cause of morbidity and mortality of pneumonia patients in a university hospital. The author examined 77 adult patients from November 2007 to March 2008 through clinical, radiological and laboratory standards. The researchers observed species of Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli in sputum and blood cultures. Real time PCR shows Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA in 10 patients. Laboratory analysis identified Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in patients. Researchers failed to determine the origin of the disease in 32% of the entire patients. Based on results, S. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and C. pneumoniae were the most common pathogens in the hospital.

Loeb, M. (2003). Pneumonia in Older Persons. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37:1335–1339.

Loeb’s review gives a comprehensive detail on current studies of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Most findings point Streptococcus pneumonia as the major culprit of the disease. Major risks factors that boost pneumonia include alcoholism, asthma, immunosuppression, respiratory and cardiac disease and age. Further, patients may also experience modified risks such as difficulties to swallow, breathe and relax. The author recognizes that there are only few clinical trials administered to old people in the community and hospices. Several evidences also support the importance of prevention of pneumonia in adults and the role of vaccine in the disease.

The review shows adequate proofs on how pneumonia affects older people. The author systematically presents the history, prognosis, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, treatment and prevention of the disease. He was able to demonstrate the benefits of vaccine in older adults despite the differences in results noted in clinical and observational studies. However, there are still limitations to be addressed in this review such as the effects of clinical and observational studies in relation to the implementation of vaccines.

Turner, R.B., Lande, A.E., Chase, P., Hilton, N. and Weinberg, D. (1987). Pneumonia in Pediatric Outpatients: Cause and Clinical Manifestations. The Journal of Pediatrics, 111(2): 194–200.

This article illustrates the cause and clinical manifestations of pneumonia in children. The researchers sampled 98 outpatients. Diagnosis in 39% and 19% of patients exhibited viral and bacterial pneumonia respectively. Of the patients infected with bacterial pneumonia, 53% are simultaneously infected with virus. Clinical, laboratory and x-ray trials cannot accurately measure the difference of viral and bacterial pneumonia. However, the paper noted that bacterial pneumonia is more common in children.

The data presented in this article can be used as a reference to understand the cause and clinical manifestations of pneumonia in young outpatients. The authors clearly expressed the limitations in determining the difference between the manifestations of viral and bacterial pneumonia. Their results suggested that further studies must be made to characterize the two types of pneumonia. Differences in methods significantly obscure the results of the study. They assume that if more patients studied means higher chance of having a statistical significant score to show the difference in manifestations of the disease. The study provides little explanation on the use of antigen in urines to study the incidence and control of the disease.

References

Loeb, M. (2003). Pneumonia in Older Persons. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37:1335–1339.
Podolsky, S. H. (2005). The Changing Fate of Pneumonia as a Public Health Concern in 20th-Century America and Beyond. American Journal of Public Health, 95(12): 2144-2154. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.048397.
Ruuskanen, O., Lahti, E., Jennings, L.C., and Murdoch, D.R. (2011).Viral Pneumonia. The Lancet, 377: 1264-1275.
Turner, R.B., Lande, A.E., Chase, P., Hilton, N. and Weinberg, D. (1987). Pneumonia in Pediatric Outpatients: Cause and Clinical Manifestations. The Journal of Pediatrics, 111(2): 194–200.
Zer, Y., Bayram, N., Balci, I., and Filiz, A. (2010). Investigation of the Causative Agents for Community-acquired Pneumonia in Adult Patients. Turkish Journal of Medical Science, 40(1): 47-52.

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