Summary of “An Overview of Theories”
- Important social events such as revolutions led to the formalization of sociology as science.
Rise of Capitalism
- The system of people in relation to land was change from feudalism to capitalism.
- When feudal system dominated Europe, a huge part of the land was owned by the nobility but Serfs also owned small parcel of land that helped them sustain their food needs.
- Since crops became popular and expensive, the Lords broke the Serfs’ rights to live on land and raise their animals there making them work to earn money to buy their basic needs.
- During the rise of capitalism, the Duchess of Sutherland in Scotland drove the Gael clan out of their village so she could turn the whole county into sheep pasture.
- People who have surplus merchandise and land invest in manufacturing technologies which later on resulted in becoming the bosses and the workers in the US and Europe during the Industrial Revolution.
- Scientific method was used as a primary method in conducting scientific studies.
- People strive to deal with the social problems such as opposing views on the society and revolution which were presented by early theories of society.
- Conservative thinkers appreciated the works Hobbes who is a philosopher believing that social control is needed to protect people from others.
- The noble and the church who were believed to be the ones who were controlling the people were suddenly gone leading to exposing the people’s violent personalities.
- Rousseau who was an advocate of peace believed that harmony within the society can be achieved by helping the children to eliminate their frustration.
- Revolutionaries were inspired by Rousseau’s work and believed that equality is needed and must be given the serfs.
- Today, sociological theory is derived from the philosophy of Hobbes dealing with sustaining the order of the society and Rousseau’s belief dealing with the study of social conflict and revolt.
Hale, S.M. (1990). An overview of theories. In Controversies in Sociology (pp. 12-16). Mississauga: Copp Clark Pittman