Frameworks For Understanding Vulnerable Populations Annotated Bibliography Samples

Published: 2021-06-21 23:37:19
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Aday, L. A. (2001). Who are the vulnerable? In At risk in America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States (pp.1-15). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

Each chapter of this book has a question that needs to be explored with regards to the health care of vulnerable populations. The author begins by defining vulnerable populations as those groups that are under risk of poor psychological, physical, or social health, consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health. The book highlights several groups to indicate and analyze how the framework for studying vulnerability may be applied to them. The theoretical framework introduced here is meant to provide guidelines and perspectives for identifying social determinants of illnesses and health, thereby allowing a broader policy agenda. The framework achieves this objective by providing conceptual, normative, and empirical points of reference regarding the implications of poor health. The framework incorporates the WHO’s dimensions of health: physical, social, and psychological). More importantly, this framework may be applied to the population of interest: Violence in the workplace among healthcare providers.

Aday’s framework underlines the critical nature of cost, access, and quality variables in understanding healthcare for vulnerable populations. The framework explains access as the ability of people to identify, obtain and pay for health services. Costs may be direct or indirect. Costs incurred by healthcare facilities in the provision of healthcare are direct costs. Indirect costs include the losses incurred when patients are not productive in their workplaces or at home. Quality is the comparative adequacy, inadequacy, or superiority of health services. There are several assumptions in the framework. The most significant assumption is that social, economic, medical care, and public health policies and programs serve a purpose if addressing the healthcare needs of vulnerable populations. Overall, the purpose of Aday’s framework is to provide a reference point for understanding the origin and implications of poor health among vulnerable populations. The framework also provides solutions to health disparities. In the case of violence against healthcare providers in the workplace, this framework may be used to devise a relevant policy agenda to protect health workers against violence.

Candib, L. M. (2007). Obesity and Diabetes In Vulnerable Populations: Reflection On Proximal And Distal Causes. The Annals of Family Medicine, 5(6), 547-556.
This journal article by Lucy Candib examines vulnerable populations such as people from minority and low-income communities and immigrants from developing countries. These people, usually, visit doctors because of health issues such as diabetes, obesity or metabolic syndrome-related problems. Vulnerable populations may also be health workers who are physically abused by patients or their family members. Candib notes that there are complex underling factors that determined these conditions.

These factors may be physiological, genetic, psychological social, familial, economic and political. In the United States as well as other developed nations, obesity and diabetes indicate health inequalities. Despite the fact that these conditions affect all segments of the national population, Candib notes that there is a disproportionate affliction on low-income communities as well as immigrants. Emerging nations are also facing this pandemic throughout the world. There are many interacting forces that contribute to inequalities in healthcare quality and access. Candib states that the complexity of these factors calls for explanatory models that transcend traditional singular perceptions of causality. She suggests a multi-level framework that integrates biological and social reasoning, as well as a dynamic, ecological and historical perspective. This perspective will help to develop new insights regarding the population distribution of health problems, as well as social disparities in health. She describes several determinants of the diabetes/obesity pandemic. These determinants range from the biologic, genetic, cellular and physiological to the historical, social, economic and political. She suggests that systems thinking could provide a way for considering this enormous and complex problem. The author highlights several factors that may contribute to diabetes and obesity among vulnerable populations. These include fetal and maternal explanations; health consequences of immigration and urbanization; thrifty genotype; nutritional transition; cultural perceptions and social attributions on increased weight; and the effect of globalization on nutrition. In this theoretical framework, violence in the workplace may also be an area of interest. Health workers are often assaulted physically or verbally by patients and their visitors while they conduct their activities. The “social reasoning” component of this framework best highlights the reason for this occurrence.

Aday, L. A. (2001). Who are the vulnerable? In At risk in America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States (pp.16-52). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

In this section of her book, Aday provides an outline of some of the indicators for poor psychological, physical, and social health or function. She provides several groups of people who fall under the category of vulnerable populations. The first group includes high-risk mothers and their infants. This group is affected by issues such as low birth-weight, HIV-related deaths, drug abuse causes, homicide, suicide and homelessness. The author indicates that high-risk mothers and children may be affected by more than one kind of health problem. For example, babies born with low weight may also have congenital defects and other adverse conditions associated with prematurity. The author indicates that these defects may contribute to long-term mental or physical impairment. Pregnant mothers fall into the high-risk category. Such mothers may be HIV positive or have partners who are HIV positive.

Pregnant mothers may also be in abusive relationships or fleeing political persecution. The second category is the chronically ill and disabled. The author highlights the impacts of long-term chronic illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke. These illnesses limit people in their daily activities. The third category includes persons living with HIV/ AIDS. The debilitating nature of the disease exposes the sick to a myriad of health problems. The fourth category includes mentally-ill and disabled people. The mentally ill are those individuals experiencing psychoses, neuroses or suffering from cognitive impairment and mental retardation. People who practice alcohol and substance abuse make up the fifth group of the vulnerable populations. On this point, the author points out the differences between substance users and abusers in terms of dependency. In the sixth category are the homicide and suicide-prone. The author notes that suicide is the eighth among leading causes of death in the U.S. People who abuse drugs are likely to exhibit violent behavior. This explains why health workers are sometimes assaulted in the course of performing their duties. As Policy agendas are determined, this area should be considered. Violence in the workplace should be prevented by all means.

Horsley, K., & Ciske, S. (2005). From neurons to King County neighborhoods: Partnering to promote policies based on the science of early childhood development. American Journal of Public Health, 95 (4), 562-567

This journal article emerged from the policy agenda of a diverse community partnership that was based in the Seattle area. The focus of this article is early childhood development. Children grow up in neighborhood environments that are diverse in terms of Safety. Children from vulnerable populations grow up in conditions of high poverty levels. The authors underline the effectiveness of using models to explain issues of health in early life. For example, the institute of Medicine (IOM) framework highlights the need for a multi-level approach in understanding how social forces affect human development, and how social determinants affect health. The framework suggested in this article holds that economic and social policies shape human development.

Community factors can either increase or buffer the daily stresses among vulnerable populations. These community factors include family-friendly neighborhoods and quality child care. The article provides guidelines on how this human development framework may apply in the development of a local policy agenda. The vulnerable population of interest is violence in the workplace against healthcare providers. This framework act as a guide on how community factors may inform healthcare providers on how to deal with patients to avoid bad incidences.

References

Aday, L. A. (2001). Who are the vulnerable? In At risk in America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States (pp.16-52). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Aday, L. A. (2001). Who are the vulnerable? In At risk in America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States (pp.1-15). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
Candib, L. M. (2007). Obesity and Diabetes In Vulnerable Populations: Reflection On Proximal And Distal Causes. The Annals of Family Medicine, 5(6), 547-556.
Horsley, K., & Ciske, S. (2005). From neurons to King County neighborhoods: Partnering to promote policies based on the science of early childhood development. American Journal of Public Health, 95 (4), 562-567

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