Individualism designates the realization of individual projects while communalism means the realization of projects determined by values of collective group whose members have internalized the values. The internet provides technological resources for the purpose of socialization empowering the projects of various individuals of a particular network with similar subjects towards realization of either individualism or communalism. The internet causes the social life to continue indefinitely and thus the transition to and reliance over a network society. For example, individualism is evident when a person develops a personal website page which has the content of that individual for the purpose of constructing personal projects. An example of communalism is like when al-Qaeda uses the internet to recruit its volunteers. Individualism helps people to construct individual projects. Communalism helps to the set values of a group to be realized. As a disadvantage both individualism and communalism are observed to cause disintegration of the present societies.
Cardoso argues that what may be mistaken for disintegration of the society is the reconstruction of society’s institutions as well as the efforts to restructure society itself. In support of his argument, autonomization efforts of individuals and groups are succeeded by the efforts to reconstruct a new social structure. The reconstruction of society’s institutions and the restructuring of the society itself are evident where a citizen invests in her children’s education as well as schooling. The use of internet by the younger generation to study at school is another example of Cardoso’s argument. The industry institution uses the internet to offer its services while the the local community uses technological resources to coordinate and create awareness of construction of its projects to the members. The institutions are trying to adopt new social structuring replace the current one.
Castells, M., Cardoso, G., & Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (2005).The network society: From knowledge to policy. Washington, DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University.
Dutton, W. H. (2013). The Oxford handbook of Internet studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.